Objective: Autoinflammatory diseases are driven by abnormal activation of the innate immune system. Although allergic diseases are known to be mediated by the T helper 2 response, new mechanisms are put forward about the activation of innate immunity during exposure to allergens in recent years. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and Behçet`s disease (BD) are the commonly seen autoinflammatory diseases in Turkey. It was aimed to determine the prevalence of allergic diseases in BD and FMF and contribute to explaining the relationship between autoinflammation and allergic diseases in this survey.
Materials and Methods: The study included 42 patients with BD, 40 with FMF, 20 with other rheumatic diseases, and 20 healthy controls who had volunteered for allergic evaluation. Patients were questioned about allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, venom allergy, and food-drug allergy. The same prick test panel was used for all patients to investigate the presence of atopy.
Results: Although the rate of allergic diseases and the blood eosinophil rate were significantly higher in patients with FMF and Behçet`s disease, which are commonly seen as autoinflammatory diseases, atopy rates were similar in all groups. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and any allergic diseases was significantly higher in the FMF and BD groups (p: 0.03 and p: 0.02, respectively). In the multiple logistic regression model of the presence of any allergic disease, none of the factors was associated with allergic diseases.
Conclusion: The prevalence of allergic diseases in patients with FMF and BD was found to be higher than in those with other rheumatic diseases and the control group but atopy rates were similar in all groups. The autoinflammatory diseases are not protective in terms of allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis. This may be the result of recent advances in the innate immune sensing system.