Recent advances in the pathogenesis of rhinitis
Keywords:Allergic rhinitis, nonallergic rhinitis, local allergic rhinitis, pathophysiology, nasal symptoms, nasal inflammation, rhinopathy
Rhinitis is a term that describes the acute or chronic intermittent or persistent presence of more than one nasal symptoms including runny nose, itching, sneezing and stuffy nose. Allergic and nonallergic rihinitis is a common respiratory diseases that affects approximately 20-40% of the population. Although allergic rhinitis has a clear definition and its pathophysiology has been thoroughly investigated, nonallergic rhinitis remains poorly understood. However, nonallergic rhinitis consists of several heterogeneous conditions. Despite the term rhinitis implies inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes, some forms of rhinitis are not associated with inflammation. In this review, we overview the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic, nonallergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the mechanisms. In addition, local allergic rhinitis; a new phenotype of rhinitis that may affect individuals previously diagnosed with nonallergic rhinitis is briefly highlighted.