Objective: Sera of the chronic urticaria patients have IgG-type functional antibodies against high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRIα) found on the surface of mast cells and basophils or IgE. The presence of these autoantibodies can be shown by an autologous serum test consisting of the papule and erythema reaction arising from the injection of the serum into the dermis. It has been suggested in recent years that autologous plasma skin test would be more appropriate than the autologous serum skin test in chronic urticaria. The present study evaluated the test results of autologous serum skin test and autologous plasma skin test in chronic urticaria patients.
Materials and Methods: The study registered 34 chronic urticaria patients who presented at dermatology outpatient clinic from July 2009 to November 2010, and a control group consisting of 30 healthy volunteers. Chronic urticaria patients and control group were tested by using autologous serum and autologous plasma skin tests. Urticaria activity scores of chronic urticaria patients were calculated.
Results: Autologous serum skin test was found to be positive in 67.6% of chronic urticaria patients and 26.7% of control group. Autologous plasma skin test, on the other hand, was established to be positive in 79.4% of chronic urticaria patients and 30% of control group. In case of chronic patients whose disease duration ranged between 1-5 years, both tests produced positive results at higher rates. Urticaria activity scores of the chronic urticaria patients whose autologous serum and autologous plasma skin tests were positive were higher than those of the chronic urticaria patients with negative test results.
Conclusion: The fact that autologous plasma skin test was found higher in comparison to autologous serum test in chronic urticaria patients may bring new treatment alternatives to the fore in the light of the new developments in the disease pathogenesis.