Objective: Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) consist of genetically heterogeneous disorders. The spectrum can include infectious diseases, malignancy, allergy, and autoimmunity. We aimed to analyze the frequency and variety of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in PIDs and describe their clinical and laboratory features.
Materials and Methods: Ninety-two patients with PID followed by Ege University Medical Faculty between 2000 and 2017 were enrolled in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. All patients` medical records were reviewed using the demographic information, type of PIDs and ADs, ADs-related autoantibodies, and basic and immunologic laboratory findings. ADs were diagnosed using clinical and complementary paraclinical findings by an immunologist and/or a subspecialist related to the affected organ or system.
Results: We evaluated 50 male and 42 female PID patients with a mean age of 40.92 (18-86). Twenty-nine (32 %) patients (15 females/14 males) with a mean age of 43.8 (19-78) had ADs. In our study group, the most commonly detected type of PID with AD is common variable immune deficiency (CVID) (n=17); followed by combined immune deficiency (CID) (n=3), CTLA4 deficiency (n=2), selective IgA deficiency (sIgAD) (n=2), specific IgG subgroup deficiency (n=1), autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) with hypogammaglobulinemia (n=1), dyskeratosis congenita (DC) (n=1), Osler-Rendu-Weber (ORW) syndrome with CVID-like PID (n=1), and cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) (n=1). According to systematic assessments, ADs resulted in endocrinologic 14%, dermatologic 10.8%, rheumatologic 9.7%, gastroenterological 9.7%, hematological 8.6%, and neurologic disorders 1%. The frequency of ADs was higher in CVID cases than other types of PIDs (p <0.05). Basic and immunologic laboratory findings of the PIDs with and without ADs were analyzed and compared; however, no statical significant difference was obtained between the groups.
Conclusion: We have analyzed the frequency and variety of ADs in a adult PID cohort in Turkey. Patients presenting with multiple ADs should be screened for having an underlying PID.