Hearing Assessment in Adult Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

Gökhan Aytekin
Fatih Çölkesen
Eray Yıldız
Mitat Arıcıgil
Şevket Arslan

Abstract

Objective: Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary antibody disorder characterized by impaired B cell differentiation. Patients commonly present with acute and chronic sinusitis as well as otitis media, which may lead to hearing loss.

Materials and Methods: Thirty-three CVID patients (20 male /13 female) with a mean age of 35 years (range 19-65 years) and 33 healthy individuals as a control group were included.

Results: Among CVID patients, 17 (51.5%) had conductive hearing loss (CHL) , being unilateral in 4 (12.1%) and bilateral in 13 (39.4%). Unilateral and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were detected in 2 (6.1%) and 5 (15.2%) respectively. CD4/CD8 cell ratio was significantly lower while CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in those with CHL than in those without it (p=0.045 and p=0.009). Elevated CD8+ T cell ratio was an independent risk factor for CHL (p=0.015). Patients with SNHL were significantly older than those without it (p=0.040). CD16-56+ cell count was significantly lower in those with SNHL (p=0.031).

Conclusion: CVID patients have an increased occurrence of CHL and SNHL, regardless of the cause. They provide evidence for the notion that these two types of hearing loss are not unrelated, immune dysregulation also plays a role in the process, and SNHL is not independent of CHL.

Keywords

Common variable immune deficiency, conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss
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