COVID-19 Disease and Hereditary Angioedema

Aycan Aşık
Nihal Mete Gökmen

Abstract

Since December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing COVID-19 disease has influenced the whole world. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on type 2 pneumocytes in humans were determined as the entry for SARSCoV- 2. Receptor binding and subsequently endocytosis of ACE2 diminish the cell membrane expression and also the function of ACE2. ACE2 is an enzyme involved in bradykinin metabolism. Lys-des-Arg9-BK occured with enzymatic cleaving of Lys-BK derived from low molecular weight kininogen is inactivated by ACE2 in tissues and it is a vasodilator agent having its own receptor named bradykinin B1. Non-metabolized Lys-des-Arg9-BK can be the reason for tissue vasodilation and increased vascular permeability in the patients with COVID-19. Increased bradykinin levels in patients with hereditary angioedema with C1-INH deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) do not cause increased SARS-CoV-2 infection or more severe disease. Although SARS-CoV-2 infection does not result in increased bradykinin levels, it can increase Lys-des-Arg9-BK levels.

Keywords

COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, hereditary angioedema, ACE2 receptors, bradykinin, Lys-des-Arg9-BK
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